There are two types of Anoa, both live in dense forested areas and are in essence miniature water buffalo. They look very similar to a deer and weigh about 300 pounds. Both types are also found on the Island of Sulawesi in Indonesia.
They live singly, rather than in herds except during the breeding season or when the cows are ready to birth their young. Cows breed in late fall and have only one young every year.
Both species of anoa have been endangered since the 1960s and the population continues to decrease. It seems unlikely that there are more than 5000 of them left alive in the world today. The reason for the decline is the loss of habitat, as well a hunting for meat, horns and hide by the natives of the island. Currently, hunting is the most serious factor.
The anoa do not appear to be adaptable to humans. They are just over a yard tall at the shoulder an are the smallest of all wild cattle.
They are very close in apearance to the large Asiatic buffalo and may be a descendent of these. The horns are very strange in appearance for their upright direction and comparative straightness. White spots are sometimes present below the eyes, and there may be white markings on the legs and back.
The horns of the cows are very small. The nearest relatives of the anoa appear to be extinct buffaloes, the remains of which are found in the Siwalik Hills of northern India.